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Sunday, 5 April 2009

corporal punishment

this is all I could collect..... kalau tak satisfiying, sorila...=)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------In the modern world, corporal punishment remains a common way of disciplining children[citation needed]; however its use has declined significantly since the 1950s. It has been outlawed in many countries; however, some legal systems permit parents to use mild corporal punishment on their children.
A campaign called "Global Initiative To End All Corporal Punishment Of Children" hopes to achieve full prohibition of all corporal punishment of children worldwide. The UN Study on Violence against Children sets a target date of 2009 for universal prohibition,
including in the home. School discipline in the West generally avoids physical correction altogether. The United States, where paddling remains legal in several states, is now the only significant exception to this (Canadian corrective force is widely reported as being of a non-corporal nature). In most European countries it was banned at varying points in the 20th century. On the other hand, school corporal punishment, though probably on the decline overall, is lawful and remains in use in various other parts of the world, and is commonplace in some countries in Africa, the Caribbean and Asia, notably in former British territories but also in a few countries that were never under British rule, such as South Korea and (until very recently) Taiwan and Thailand. According to the Global Initiative in 2008, at least 87 countries do not prohibit the use of corporal punishment in schools, and 150 countries do not prohibit it within alternative care settings.
The exemption of corporal punishment from criminal assault in Canada stipulates that the administrator must be a teacher or parent (or guardian assuming all the obligations of a parent), that the force must be used "by way of correction" (sober, reasoned uses of force that address the actual behaviour of the child and are designed to restrain, control or express some symbolic disapproval of his or her behaviour), the child must be capable of benefiting from the correction (ie: not under the age of 2, etc), the use of force must also be "reasonable under the circumstances" - ie: it results neither in harm nor in the prospect of bodily harm. Corporal punishment which involves slaps or blows to the head is harmful.
Unofficially, physical punishment in schools also persists in some countries where it is technically illegal, such as China and South Africa.
In the United States, race, gender, and social class have a significant influence on corporal punishment. Black and male American children are much more likely to be hit at home and school
and corporal punishment of boys tends to be more severe and more aggressive than corporal punishment administered to girls despite research suggesting that corporal punishment is more counterproductive for boys than girls. Middle-class parents, meanwhile, tend to administer corporal punishment in greater numbers than their counterparts above and below them on the socioeconomic scale; however, lower-class parents tend to do so with greater frequency.
Approaches to corporal punishment in schools vary throughout the world. School corporal punishment is banned in most western nations. All of Western Europe, most of Eastern Europe, New Zealand, Japan and South Africa have banned school corporal punishment, as have a growing number of countries or states in the rest of Africa and in the Indian subcontinent. Corporal punishment is legal in Canada and is specifically exempted from prosecution if administered by a parent or teacher; enforcement of standards beyond which corporal punishment become child abuse varies in the country. In Australia, corporal punishment in state schools is banned by law in three States; banned under ministerial guidelines or local educational policy in three others (but remains lawful under the defence of 'reasonable chastisement'); and remains available as a disciplinary option in another two States. It remains legally available to private schools in half of States. In the United States, 23 states allow corporal punishment in schools. There is some disagreement about how much paddling occurs in US schools. Some estimates place the number of paddlings at approximately 350,000 a year, while the National Association of School Psychologists places the number at 1.5 million cases a year.
Corporal punishment of male students has always, in most cultures, generally been more prevalent and more severe than that of female students. In Queensland, Australia, school corporal punishment of girls was banned in 1934 but corporal punishment of boys in private schools is still legal as of 2007. In Singapore, schoolboys are routinely caned for misbehaviour while the caning of girls at school is forbidden by law.
When used in the home as a form of domestic punishment for children, smacking (
spanking in American English) is the most common form of corporal punishment, although this form of punishment of children is in declining use and is banned in a growing number of countries.



-melati-

1 comment:

Hall Monitor said...

Leading education site http://detentionslip.org is fighting the battle to end corporal punishment in schools. Check it out for more on this controversial topic.